Rabu, 25 Maret 2009

Values Education Environment For Children Age Preschools

I. BACKGROUND MATTERS
Global problems of the crisis more complex and multidimensional one serious problem is the damage to ecology or the environment, has become a global issue that involves the way the modern view of human nature. Environmental pollution problem gets much attention, because it overrides the world of today and generations to come. If it be, the main factor the occurrence of environmental destruction as a result of the large-scale products, modern technology.

According to the Tri Rachma Widuri and Praminto Moehayat in an article titled, Climate Change and Ecosystem Restoration, Kompas, 22 September 2007, hlm. 19, said that human activity in the field of forest industries that burn-seisi contents have been produced bursts of billions of tons of particles, gas and carbon dioxide klorofluorokarbon. This carbon emissions arising from burning fossil fuels that can not be diperbaruhi, such as coal, gas, and petroleum. Damage to forests in Indonesia, especially as the lungs of the world have a big enough contribution to climate change as a trigger and as a result of global warming menipisnya ozone layer.
Environmental conditions with dirusaknya the forest, burning, illegal logging, land petanian disulap into industrial and housing area. Has brought negative impacts such as drought. Indonesia is one of the country who are feeling the impact of weather damage to the system.

According to Toto in Subandriyo article entitled Managing Drought Risk, Suara Merdeka, 12 September hlm. 13, said that the weather system damage has been caused climate anomaly as the temperature increases 1-1,5 degrees centigrade in Africa, so that the dry air that blow from Australia moving to African forests. This phenomenon is causing drought in the area ekuator, including in Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Sumatra, and in part.
Climate change will make developing countries such as Indonesia to achieve the goals of sustainable development and millennium development goals or the Millennium Development Goals / MDG's. Climate change will threaten the availability of natural resources, adding that faced severe problems, create new problems, and efforts to bring the solution more difficult to search and expensive.
 

Human activities to meet the needs due to a natural environment. Air pollution, soil, water, which sometimes does not bring suburnya as a result of agricultural land, flooding and landslides.
 

It is clearly known that damage to nature and the environment in which dasyat not sebabkan by penuaan nature itself but is caused by the hands, which is always within the stall, which indeed often exploit regardless of environmental damage. Crisis environment and humanity must be a central concern of every religious tradition and community, as well as a focus in the effort religions understand each other.
 

Man is a little more successfully manage kehidupanya (birth control and death control), now are required to seek the setting of the process that's normal and natural environment in order to balance. Role for human menaggulangi issues as nature conservation efforts can be located through the path that is political, organizational, administrative, professional and scientific lines. So happens the balance of various human-oriented fields of study on the handling of the environment, because most of the disaster on the planet earth is caused by human actions ulah not responsible.
 

Phenomenon is that the need to prove the existence of a new reconstruction in the education sector to face global challenges of the age. In the era of ecological crisis in all the various systems of construction of ideology need a new direction in epistemology and kususnya on a new paradigm in the field of education.
 

Education format suitable conditions above, one needs to menyajkan implement educational strategies with a value-based environment as a source of religious life of the students to be able to recognize the true meaning of life.

II. Formula MATTERS
Based on the above background, the problems will be discussed in this paper are:
How is the value of environmental education for pre-age children?

III. Discussion
A. The concept of Environmental Education Value
1. Marrow Environment
At this time the term environment is often referred to as the top of the evidence that has begun to worry people will be potential damage to the environment. The term ecology is used as a term or a branch of science. While the term ecology was first introduced by a German nation zoology expert named Ernst Haeckel in 1866. In general, ecology can be defined as the relationship between organisms and their habitat, or learn about the science of the organism relationship with their environment.
 

While the term environment in this discussion is from the latin language biosfer are all things that are around people. Biosfer comes from the word bio means life, and means sphaire environment. Living creatures consist of people, plants, and microorganisms. Being alive is not possible apart from the environment of his life. Environment is the place where the living organism called the habitat and the organism tries to adjust his life according to the condition ekosistemnya.
 

Yusuf al Qardhawi views about the environment, namely a range where people are living, people living in it, whether or when the travel-in, as the man again, both in the real or forced. Another case with Otto Soemarwoto, in this case it defines the environment is a number of objects and conditions that we have in the room tempati and affect our lives. All of his life interacting with the environment, affect the environment and the life he pengaruhi by the environment in his life.
 

So the environment is a unity with all things space, power, and the organism, including the human and perilakunya of perikehidupan affecting human welfare and the other organism. Thus the talk about the environment, it will not be apart of who occupies the environment, so here there are two components, namely object and subject, the environment is basically all the things that is in the nature around, all objects, including manusai conditions and natural lakunya.
 

Human relationship with the environment going to the dynamic. Related and affect each other, people can develop if the perfect man can realize himself with the environment of his life. Humans, animals and plants can survive in accordance with the environmental conditions that support himself. Environmental conditions specified by it in a variety of factors. There are two environmental factors biotik and nonbiotik. Humans must be responsible for the maintenance and progress of the environment of his life.
 

Basically the man responsible for the maintenance of the environment to maintain the scope in which people live, so in accordance with the position and dignity as the caliph. Humans are of course aware that the universe created by God in, God's power does not only create something that's not there (conditio ex nihilo) to have (in exist), but includes the defense, maintenance, and the fulfillment of needs and support all aspects of the system His network citptaan well.
 

Healthy environment and a good throw kehijauhan perspective is longed for in every human being. Maintenance and preservation of the environment is also to be adjusted with the direction of development to get better does not happen imbalance. The balance of ecosystems will not occur if the interference from outside in the form of disaster, whether in sebabkan by natural processes and human nature. Also explain the Koran not to make mischief in the land such as this in the mail al A'raaf namely:
ولا تفسدوا في الأرض بعد إصلاحها وادعوه خوفا وطمعا إن رحمة الله قريب من المحسنين
"Do not make mischief in the earth, after the (God) improve and pray to Him with fear (will not be received) and expectations (be granted). Surely mercy of God is near to those who do good. " (Q. S. Al A'raaf / 7: 56).

Basically, the damage of natural resources and the environment caused by human behavior itself. As a result of natural resources and energy in particular become scarce due to excessive levels of interaction (over explotation) and shows less aspect of development. 

Environment can in classifying into three categories namely:
1. Physical environment (physical environment)
Everything around us is shaped objects such as the death house, mountain, car, air, water, air, sunlight and other.
2. Biological environment (biological environment)
Everything that is in the form of human living organisms other than man himself, stars, moon, animals plants, Jasad renik (plankton) and the other.
3. Social environment (social environment)
The man-man who is in the surrounding community such as neighbors and others.
Humans have a vital role in the maintenance environment. If people ignore the environment means that people have made the ecological sin. So that the reconstruction needs of the new educational paradigm that tends to the realistic mekanistik. So a new paradigm must be ditanamkan since early. Through the introduction of ecological since early, children will realize the importance of maintaining, caring, and preserve the environment.
 

2. Environmental Values Education
Education is an absolute requirement that must be met, because the education for human life is to provide himself with the knowledge. All can achieve with effort and prayer that as closely as possible, with the long process of gradual and systematic planning based on the strong to achieve what is desired in the appropriate destination.
Education in English known as "education" is derived from the Latin "educere" means entering or someone to enter science. The Undan-Undang RI No 20 of 2003, education, namely:
 

Conscious and planned effort to realize the atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that students are actively developing itself to have potential for spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intellect, noble character, and himself the necessary skills, community, nation and state.
Meanwhile, according to Ahmad Tafsir educational guidance is given to someone so that he grew the most. Meanwhile, according to George F. Kneller education is "education is the process of self realization, in which the self realizes and develops all its potentialities."
 

From the definition above pendidkan is a conscious effort to realize the good morals and self-supply in accordance with the potential of the birth. But education requires a systematic planning process and through long and continuous.
Similarly the value of environmental education is the education of Islam, the basis for environmental education are also fundamental values of Islam. When we hear of values, will hold because we value as a theme of broad and abstract. Position educational value as well as moral education can be spelled out even as the science of ethics but the reality of starting a new value of impacts that occur in the current era, the tercetus called the value of education.
 

Implementation of environmental education for this, found, among other problems bebagai; the low participation of the community to play an active role is due to a lack of understanding of the problems that have environmental education, low level of ability or skill and the low commitment of the community in solving problems.
Environmental education is the effort to change attitudes and behavior conducted by different parties or elements of society that aims to increase knowledge, skills and community awareness about the values of environmental issues and environmental problems that ultimately can mengerakkan for people to play an active role in conservation efforts and environmental safety for the benefit of generations now and future.
Talking about the value will not have a lot of utmost expert opinion that is different, because the value as something that is essential to the inherent nature of a belief system that has been associated with a subject that gives the sense that someone who believes.
Principal environmental problems have become global issues, the need to provide environmental education as a series of concepts to build the value of environmental education is ideal. To understand the value of education in accordance with the discussion of this basic understanding that they needed a strong, no surefire first study will be about values.
According to interpret Riseri Frondizi value:
Value is a quality that does not depend on the object; object is something of value, the tergantungan includes every form of empirical, the value is the quality of a priori. So the value of the assessment is someone who believes that the goods that have meaning and value laden.
Meanwhile, in view of the Sidi Gazalba in the quotation by Chabib Toha, imply a value:
Value is something that is abstract, it is ideal, the value is not a concrete object, not a fact, not only the issue of correct and incorrect according to the empirical verification, but a matter of penghayatan the desired and not desired, and be not be.

Value can be viewed from different angles, if the terms of the needs of human life, the value according to Abraham Maslow grouped into five (5), namely, biological value, security, love, self esteem and self value. Another case if the value of education is associated with Islam. To excavate the value set in the glorious Islamic education in the need sociological and philosophical foundations as paradigmanya.
Value system as the basic framework of the guidelines to be behave ruhaniah appropriate physical and moral system that taught Islam. Islam is a value system that is comprehensive that includes good and bad deeds. Value that is a covered component or sub-system according to Arifin in the book, entitled Philosophy of Islamic Education, earth literacy hlm. 126 of them, namely:
1. Cultural value system that senada and senapas with Islam
2. Value system that has a mechanism of social movement oriented to the prosperous life in the world and the Hereafter.
3. System of a psychological value of each individual who is driven by functions to behave in psikologisnya controlled by the value that a source rujukanya.
4. Value system behavior of living creatures (humans) that contains interrelasi or interkomunikasi with the other. This behavior arises because of the demands of the need to maintain a life colored by a lot of value in the motivatif himself.
The startegi in the value of the approach are closely related because the value to the interests and needs. So in this approach, an educator is expected to do the following:
1. Create situations of social life, in this case the student is connected with the social scope of the opportunity to give it to him to make choices and feel the consequences of that choice for themselves and the community
2. Provide opportunities for students based on experience to ponder and reflect the various consequences of what it receives and does not receive a value of community life, students will be private.
3. Provide the opportunity for students to feel the benefits of receiving a value in the hubunganya life together.
4. Encourage the students through the provision of adoration and appreciation for the value of the practice has been understood and accepted start.
So also in the value of the education system does not have any meaning and full of meaning, meaning the value of education in the educational value Rohmat Mulyana is education that includes aspects of teaching or guidance to students in order to realize the value of truth, goodness, and beauty, through the process of consideration of value appropriate and consistent pembiasaan act.
This showed that the relationship between the subject with the object, has important meaning in the life of the object. In his view Syamsul Ma'arif in puralisme education in Indonesia, said the value of education is education that attempts to develop the creative potential of students, not just the problem facts, rational scientific truth, but the problem is more than the cognitive afektif.
Through the planting value since early childhood will be more aware of the importance of maintaining the environment. Now education is more emphasis on pre election talents and interests through play and learning methods. While the park early childhood education put more emphasis pembelajarn centers, children free to choose the desired center. Sentra natural materials is one of the centers that show the natural materials or goods used.
Value highly the role of education in the need for efforts penyadaran individual and social, as with the educational value of the environment is expected of students able to realize ekologisnya:
وابتغ فيما آتاك الله الدار الآخرة ولا تنس نصيبك من الدنيا وأحسن كم ا أحسن الله إليك ولا تبغ الفساد في الأرض إن الله لا يحب المفسدين

"And do okay (to others) as Allah has been good to you, and you do jangalah damage in the (face) the earth. Allah loveth not those who do mischief. " (Q. S. Al Qashash/28: 77).

The purpose of education is meant the value of the environment so that students understand, appreciate and experience values, able to put the integral in the lives of the environment which ultimately can cause concern, a commitment to protect, improve, exploit the environment wise, participated in creating new patterns of behavior are friends with the environment, develop environmental ethics and improve the quality of life.
من جاء بالحسنة فله خير منها ومن جاء بالسيئة فلا يجزى الذين عملوا السيئات إلا ما كانوا يعملون
"Whoever comes after a good deed, he shall (a reward) better than kebaikanya it, and whoever comes after the crime, then those who do evil that has not been given a reply, but what they did (balanced)" . (Q.S Al Qashash/28: 84).

B. Value for planting Ecology Age Child Preschools
1. Age of Child Preschools
Phase is the pre phase that every child will experience a period after breastfeeding. At this phase is a period of exploration for the development of the child to speak, always want to move, always want to have a selfish thing. Phase of the school age is between 3 to 6 years and is part of the younger children who are born on rentangan age samapi 6 years. At this age triminologi are referred to as the pre-aged children.
Pre-aged children for a phase-sensitive children begin to receive the various efforts throughout the development potential of children. The period of sensitivity is a function of the occurrence of maturation-physical and psychological function that is ready to respond to the stimulus provided by the environment. This is a period of time for laying the first foundation in the physical ability, cognitive, language, social, emotional, self-concept, discipline, independence, artistic, moral, and religious values. Stimulus that matches the potential of children in the period of its development, as an educator to teach their children how to speak, walk, play and how berolah sport.
Basic education for pre-age children is also in accordance with the Law of National Education System No. 20 of 2003 which is "kindergarten (TK) performs keperibadian education to develop self-potential and in accordance with the development of students."
Oriented approach for learning pre-aged children must be in accordance with the target, then we need to remember the pre function of education, the goal in the kindergarten cited by M. Person in the book Capita Selekta Pendidikan Islam establish kindergarten are:
a. Provide a complete education to the children (3-6 years) in accordance with reasonable development.
b. Provide help and guidance to mothers to educate their children.
c. Educate and prepare prospective mother melaluin theory and practical to be a leader for the kindergarten and duties as mothers.
While the function of education pre namely:
1. Extending the measure attitudes and child-oriented charity to measure attitudes and individualitasnya in harmony.
2. Implement the mandate of the education of parents in children's developing personal meaning through the process of learning to obtain the formal elements of basic science with the introduction of children to the natural surroundings.
3. Prepare children with the experience, attitude and ability to enter into the actual school.
1. Target pre-age children's education is to be able to get the best people and the education process mengemban able to do something appropriate intellectual, social, physical, beauty, and moral, can be a rapprochement with the environment.
Approach to learning in the pre-aged children do pembiasaan based and have a basic ability in children. Approach and learning in kindergarten and raudhatul atfhal should observe the following principles:
1. Learning-oriented principles of child development.
2. Focused on the needs of children.
3. While learning to play or learn while playing
4. Use the thematic approach
5. Creative and innovative
6. Conducive environment.
7. Develop the skill of living.
Education is a pre-age child development and learning oriented students, and establish perkembanganya growth and develop potential and bakatnya to become a man of faith and fear to God that omniscient one, have a certain noble and to realize a civilized nation.
2. Personal Values Education Environment
Islam is the "rahmatan lil'alamin" means the religion that brings benefits to the whole of nature. Kindergarten (TK) as a pre is the most important part of the system to deliver a series of children entering primary education.
Pre diusia learning is a form of education that provides a full program of learning. Preschool education on the potential of children associated with the intellect (Intellegence), skills (skills), language (language), socializing behavior (social behavior), physical (motor) and art (aesthetics) began to grow and develop.
Scope of education then the value of the environment can diselaraskan through the material pendidkan. In general, the scope of educational materials, namely the value of the environment; materials faith, the spiritual, the social, intellectual or material ratio, masteri physical and aesthetic.
Planting ecological value through various methods can be used as learning activities, among which are:
1. Play Method
At this time children tended to like the game, then do not wonder if the TK is considered as a place to learn and play.
a) Method sosiodrama or role that is central to the way mendramatisasikan behavior or a certain role as simulasinya. Ie children invited to participate into the well or wise to the environment. Become a role model or pet animal nature and behavior of animals.
b) Method and the center circle, which is one of the methods of educating children in the concept of the play. This method is equipment and materials grouped play some center as needed, such as the center beam; children are making the house and garden from the beam power according imanjinasinya. Children invited to play with the visualization of animals, using the tools and materials from the surrounding environment. Children invited to create a tool permaian of materials used.
2. Method tells
Very influential role of the teacher because the teacher is a central learning. Method is a technique menuturkan story or convey verbally, the teacher gives lessons to the story of oral language. Told to appreciate the friends, the environment, told the world about animals, plants, and stories example.
Method of absorption through the story of ecological value for children aims latih power as the ability to think and express power kosentrasi. Imanjinasi help perkembagan power, creating a fun atmosphere, close to the books, animals, plants, and stories example.
3. Method Demonstration
Through the method demontarasi expected to provide the illustration to explain the information to the child. For example, teachers' practice in place the trash or sweep the floor. Even making tool of the remnant waste.
Very influential role of teachers in methods Demonstration, the teachers are expected to become a good example for students. Demonstration through methods in the ecological value penghayatan children are expected to be active, berpeilaku friendly against dirt and find out the truth if we do not dispose of waste in place will cause kekumuhan dikelas and meninmbulkan spread of mosquitoes.
4. Method Pembiasaan
Refraction method is important because it will shape the personality of children. Pembiasaan have a wise and discerning can dibiasakan by both students disekolah, family life and the environment. Through the method pembiasaan teachers or educators to give good example of the ecological value of exercise.
Dibiasakan children to behave friendly towards each other, animals, plants and all the covers. Be appropriate with the disyariatkan Islam, such as the trash in its place, courtesy after eating and drinking.
5. His method of Tourism
This method is given to the children how to introduce that the universe is the result of God's creation there is no both of them. Give attention to the child in accordance with reality, which include; children invited to the zoo to see the names of the animals that are inside and being able to appreciate the other.
Through the method of the tour will arise curiosity and ecological awareness. Teachers' role is to explain the various names of animals, food, and others. Then the teacher can provide ecological value that all animals are God's creation, compulsory for children to respect and treat all the animals in this world.
Planting education environment is not only value the learning process dikelas, but there are many activities supporting learning environment are:
1. Outbound
Is a learning activity for the establishment of children's attitudes (self-confidence, team work). Learning can be through this group and the puzzle game of the group.
2. Gardening or farming
This activity aims to love and appreciate the natural environment. The activities can be done with planting flowers in the school, mentiram, and clean up the dirt around the schoolyard.
3. Berternak
Learning berternak indeed sometimes make a fuss, because related prasaranan school. Berternak intended to provide children to love the environment and activities are used as media for the pemebelajaran aspects perternakan. Children can learn recycle leftover food and excrement to make compost.
4. Market day
Events such as this to introduce children to practice berwirausaha. Students are trained to be able to make a plan, a campaign to sell that is the most important. That is able to sell the works of children's own The natural materials into works of art.
5. Outing
This activity is as a way kegitan deepen the material that was submitted disekolah. This activity is carried out by visiting the places in accordance with the theme of learning materials.
6. OTFA (Tracking Out Fun Adventure)
Is the sustainability of the outbound and the outing, but this material as a final evaluation of berbgai activities. This activity can be done disekolah and outside school. Forms of activities are subject to the agreement the most interesting for students, such as outbound, recreation, camping and tracking.

IV. CONCLUSIONS
From the description above conclusions can be drawn as follows:
1. Education is the emphasis the value of environmental aspects of teaching so that students realize the value of truth, goodness and beauty as well as the learning process that produces changes in behavior and attitudes to the environment of respect mikrokosmos to makrokosmos
2. Planting environmental values education can be through education and the scope of the material using the method BCCT or more in the know with the method of centers and methods of natural learning method and model that are relevant to introduce the importance of maintaining, and caring for the environment. Integrate supporting activities such as outbound, outing, market day, and berternak farming.

V. CONCLUSION
Thus the author for the paper, it is still far from perfection. The author is aware of this process in learning to search through ridho Illahi Rabbi. So I hope the critics and suggestions that can be built for the simple perfection this paper.















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1 komentar:

  1. ususally the asap from burning in Indonesia affected most part of Malaysia, we experiaence jerubu here...Is Slim Better Than Obese?

    BalasHapus